In 1855 Thomas Edward Mycock, a most enterprising business man, owned some pasture land and a brickyard here, whilst Thomas Wilkinson appears to have looked afterhis employer's interests from the little office already mentioned. Six years later Mycock had succeeded Melling, Carr and Company at the Don Glass Works, which were situated just beyond the chemical works in Faraday road on the river side. Yet further, he was a brick' maker at Broad Oak Green, Ecclesall ; a quarry owner along the Intake road, a plumber, glazier, painter, builder and contractor, and a dealer in terra-cotta ware, drain pipes, etc. etc., with an office at No. 108 Fargate, or in modern terms, in Barker's Pool between the City Hall and the Cinema House.
To Mr. J. M. Furness's 'I Record of Municipal Affairs in Sheffield from 1843 to 1893 " we are indebted for a few details of his public life. He was a member of our first Town Council in 1843, representing St. Peter's ward until November, 1846. Then in May, 1851, he was elected with six others to the Aldermanic Bench, a position he occupied until his death on August 6th, 1865. It is well to note that William Jeffcock, of High Hazels, Darnall, was our first mayor, and that George Hill, William Marriott and John Shaw were our Attercliffe representatives on that first Council.
Charier. Gibson, joiner and builder, a new-comer to Attercliffe from Lord street, Park, was one of the pioneer builders in Carlton and Washford roads, commencing with two houses (2s. 9d. per week 1), a house and retail shop, and a house, shop, and shed, all " near Washford Bridge," where industrial developments eventually gave us the Warwickshire Furnishing Company's place. Mr. J. A. Shepherd, of City Road, an Attercliffe man " bred and born " (to use the old, old phrase), a very helpful correspondent of mine, writes " behind the large house, still standing, to the rear of the Warwickshire, with windows facing the bridge, in the next yard below was another house similarly situated but larger, built by Mr. Gibson and occupied by a Mr. Lee, sheet- roller at the Baltic Works,. who had four sons, John, George, Tom, Fred, all of whom worked at the same place and at the same trade. Tom Lee married a sister of Mr. R. H. Ramsden, the well-known Fargate hatter." Another of Mr. Shepherd's reminiscences takes us back to the eighteen -twenties, but refers primarily to the opposite corner of the bridge : " My mother, born in 18,15, as a girl had to carry water for domestic purposes from the river, thankful for the steps that led down from the bridge corner. People had to buy drinking water at a halfpenny per bucketful, unless they were fortunate enough to be near a well or a pump."
In the early sixties Mrs. Teresa Lee was the landlady of nine houses in the road, the rents varying from 2s. 7d. to 5s. 4d. per week. Her residence, the larger house referred to above, has now disappeared, giving place to Wm. Cook and Sons' Glasgow Steel Works, which seem to gaze across the river at their older neighbour, John Fowler's Don Foundry, erected in the early 'seventies, the firm reaching back through several generations as the Sheaf Foundry in Exchange lane, off Furnival road, the site of which lane is now covered in part by W. H. Smith and Son's premises. A dozen tenements-including the Bridge Inn at the eastern cornerowned by John Brimelow and George Rhodes, appear to have ended the 1861 building activities in the road, but by 1864 several centres of industry were here established: Cundy Bros., Attercliffe men, John, Jonathan and William, millwrights and engineers, brass and iron founders : Reid Holliday, a Huddersfield man, ammonia and chemical pitch manufacturer: Hornby and Elliott, chemists and druggists sit No. 13 High street, part of the site of the present Sheffield Telegraph Buildings, acid makers at the Don Vitriol Works (now the Sheffield Chemical Works): William Leggoe, edge tool and cast steel fork maker. Pass on to 1876 and note Castle and Turton, Premier Works, scythe makers: James Law and Company, Washford Works, engineers and ironfounders: Henry Whitton, Effingham Steel Works, crinoline. steel makers: William Metcalf, tar distiller: Hornby, Fairburn and Company, Sheffield Chemical Works (Edward Preston Hornby as in 1864 above, of Richmond: Jno. Fairburn, in '62 a lead merchant, No. 3 Hartshead ; residence, Fairfield, Broomhall Park): E. W. Oakes and Company, sweep smelters, refiners and bullion dealers, brass founders, Washford Smelting Works.
To correlate our industrial wanderings with the rural life of half-a-century earlier, turn to the Fairbank 1819 map on page 72: run your eye along the eastern boundary lines of plots 45 and 46 and continue that direction to the top of the letter j in the name Joseph Read. Translating into actual movement, we have walked from the Bridge Inn, along the right-hand pavement of Washford road, and stopped at the Sheffield Chemical Works.
The 1849 directory cites John Sephton of the Sportsman Inn, as col lector '-presumably toll-bar collector-and the 1861 rate book gives Henry Oates, a joiner, living at the Blast lane Catch Bar. Doubtless many readers are acquainted with the later position of this bar at the junction of Stoke street and the river-side part of Effingham road, the toll-house still standing there but in an unofficial capacity.
Mr. Joseph Hill Appleton (1810-801, chemist and druggist in Attercliffe from New Year's Day, 1839, till 1879, overseer of the poor in the 'eighties, collector of taxes for several years, surveyor of highways and a member of the old Board of Highways 1860-5, strongly opposed a proposition made by the Duke of Norfolk's agent concerning the dedication of the townward part of what we now call Effingham road commencing at the present unofficial toll-house. The difference of opinion arose over its unsafe condition due to the undermining tendency of the adjacent river. As a matter of fact, a section of the road near the river bend actually collapsed shortly afterwards. The negotiations having failed, the toll-bar was removed from Stoke street corner and placed in its present position, toll being levied for the ---oldPark road and Bacon Lane" far into the 'seventies, if not later.
Sir Henry Bessemer, F.R.S. (1813-98), was a prolific inventor : it is said that he spent the sum of £10,000 in patent-stamps alone 1 His process, patented in 1856, for making steel at a cheaper rate and in greater quantities than the earlier methods could manage increased the annual output from 50,000 tons to one-and-a-half millions. In 1859 he established the firm of Henry Bessemer and Company north of the river, in Carlisle street east, next to John Brown and Company's Atlas Works, with William Allen advancing from manager to resident partner within three years. In 1879 Mr. George Wilson, of Banner Cross Hall, managing director of Chas. Cammell and Company, expressed his conviction that this new product should be termed Bessemer-Mushet steel, "as it is certainly due to a method invented by the latter eminent metallurgist."
Robert Forester Mushet, who died in 1891, son of David Mushet, the introducer of puddling furnaces, disclaimed any right to be called eminent or renowned (as another friend styled him), and said that he " merely supplied the rudder to the Bessemer ship, and a rudder is indispensable no matter how otherwise complete the ship may be." Briefly, the Bessemer process consisted in driving thin columns of cold air at a high pressure through a molten mass of pig-iron to remove impurities by oxidation, leaving in the mass the required percentage of carbon, thus transforming the iron into steel. How we remember the gorgeous pyrotechnic displays, arising from this airforcing process, at Brown, Bayley and Dixon's works in the late 'seventies, where the method was in use ! The uncertainty of stopping the blast at the right moment, when the required amount of carbon was secured, proved the great difficulty. Mushet discovered the solution of the trouble by adding to the seething mass a certain compound of iron, manganese and carbon, called spiegel-eisen. The process is carefully detailed in Pawson and Braiisford's Guide to Sheffield, edited by John Taylor, issued in 1862, and the story of Mushet's looking-glass-iron (the meaning of the strange word above) is best read in his own book published in 1883. Grateful for the help derived, my readers are referred to Mr. Stainton's " Making of Sheffield," pp. 288-295, for lengthy extracts from Mushet's book and delightfully informative contributions of his own.
The first Bessemer premises in Sheffield, outside the inventor's own, were built in the Atlas Works on the initiation of Mr. J. D. Ellis, the managing- director of the firm.
Mr. Jonas was returned unopposed as town councillor for Attercliffe in 1890, following Mr. Edward Langton in the Council Chamber (which eventually became the main room of the former Reference Library in Surrey street). Thanks to the initiative of Mr. Langton, who, with his brother, resided at High Hazels for some years, and subsequently to Councillor Jonas's good efforts, the park was acquired, by purchase, for the benefit of our city, about 1894, including the house built in 1850 by our first mayor, Mr. Wm. Jeffcock, which is now, among other admirable features, a gallery of. valuable, and valued, old Sheffield pictures. Mr. Jonas became Lord Mayor in 1904 and received the Royal favour of Knighthood in the same year. His partner, Mr. Colver, likewise shared his townsmen's confidence, being elected to the time-honoured office of Master Cutler in 1890.
It is pleasant to link up our old friend, Mr. J. H. Winder, of Royds Works (see p.. 25), with the present survey, through his grandson, Mr. A. B Winder, son of the Rev. J. H. Winder, Vicar of Woodhouse (p. 26). In 1908 Mr. A. B. Winder was appointed manager of the new Siemen's plant put down by Messrs. Jonas and Colver in Stevenson road. Continually advancing, he became general manager and director of Industrial Steels Ltd., and is now- works director of the English Steel Corporation Ltd.
It may be added that the firm *of J. and C. was reconstructed in 1929 under the title of Jonas and Colver (Novo) Ltd., the directors of the Neepsend Steel and Tool Corpor. ation acting for the new company. Detailed accounts of the reconstruction appeared in the Sheffield Daily Telegraph for January 19th and February 23rd, 1929.
in Savile street east, finding some use-probably for experimental purposes-for the same old premises, within easy distance of his residence at the corner of Shortridge street. Business was brisk in Bridge street in 1876. At number 31 Ambrose Shardlow, engineer and millwright, also residing in Shortridge street, was commencing the work that soon took him into Washford road with eventually the Continental Works on his right, and the yet-standing ruined houses that recall the horrors of the air raid on the night of September 25th, 1916, the site awaiting a happy trade revival warranting the contemplated Shardlow extensions on the left. Then there were George Shimield and Son's steel works, the principal member of the firm happy in his trade announcement that he had experienced twenty-four years of practice as workman and manager with the big firms of John Brown and Co. and Cocker Brothers. The Don Glass Works (ace p. 90) were then in the occupation of William Langwell (of Chippingham street) and Co. who eventually removed as Langwell Brothers to Darnall road, near Cleveland square, using the same river-side name to describe their new premises. The name of Greenwood, tardistiller at the River Don Chemical and Grease Works on the eastern side of Bridge street, is #till recalled by the adjacent group of dwelling-houses forming Greenwood place.
At the top of Bessemer road were James Fairbrother's Crown Steel and Wire Mills. John Taylor's description of the firm's activities in 1879 makes excellent reading even yet in Pawson and Brailaford's Guide. Mr. Arthur Lee bought the business in 1874, and in 1892 Mr. Percy W. Lee - mananaging director here, and of the Trubrite Works, Meadow Hall, Master Cutler in 1927-8-joined his father and elder brother, Mr. Arthur S. Lee, in the business. Eight years later he was established in the same line at Burton Weir, but in 1903 he returned to the family firm, amalgamating his own business with it. Cold rolling of steel is one of their specialities: in fact, we. are almost sure to encounter one of their motor lorries, informatively em, blazoned with " Cold Rolling " on its sides, buzzing along the roads hereabouts.
1876 had Wm. Atkins and Co. at the Reliance Steel Works, and later Woodhouse and Rixson (tonic sol-fa singers of fifty or so years ago will remember Mr. Francis Rixson) were established at the Chantry Steel and Crank Works next to the Crown Works on the river side.
In 1911 five steel firms filled the western side of Trent street: Thomas Inman (a family name beloved in educational and other circles) at the Britannia Steel Works; W. H. Shephard, Trent Street Works; J. Shaw and Co., Gibraltar Works; Henry Green and Co., and Crosslands, looking at Wright Brothers, old-established hot-water engineers, and Rider Wilson's cooling table waters on the other side of the street.
We conclude our review of " Other Hives" by a brief roll-call of the 1932 firms in the Washfordian area. In addition to the wide-spread Continental Works, we have in Washford road the. Warwickshire Furnishing Company; Wm. Cook and Sons, Glasgow Steel Works, with John Fowler's Don Foundry across the river; G. T. Winnard's River-side Engineering Works; Steel-rope Pulley-block manufacturers; Effingham Steel and Rolling Mills (and in Windsor street); Manchester and. Sheffield. Tar Works; Sheffield Chemical Company at the Don Vitriol Works; and Ambrose Shardlow with motor cranks. a speciality. Trent street, W. H. Shephard, steal manufacturers; Sheffield Welders.; Wright Bros., Rider Wilson, and Hallamshire Pure Milk. Purveyors. Bessemer, road, Arthur Lee and Sons, Crown Works;. Woodhouse, and Rixson, Chantry Works; Joseph Beardshaw and. Co., steet manufacturers in 1896, brass founders in 1911, at the Acme Steel Works; Hall and Pickles, steel manufacturers; and at the corner of Trent street and Attercliffe road the time-honoured Bridge Foundry now in its eightieth year,
the best sixpenny Turkish Bath in England 1 " Cross over Stevenson road into Birch road: note the gloomy-looking stone building bearing the informative description " The Sheffield Foundry Workers' Club and Institute." That was. the Mill House once upon a time. Before the club had it 11 The Self-supporting Dispensary " was here in CarIton Hall its it had come to be known. " Poor persons can have medi cine by paying sixpence "-so ran a contemporary notice fifty years ago- provided they attend before eleven in the mornings, except on Sunday. Members pay one penny weekly, which entitles them to attendance and medicine. Mr.. O'Meara is chief, assisted by Mr. Turner." " The buoyant and vivacious Timothy O'Meara 1 His memory will long be fragrant in the recollections of hundreds of Attercliffe, people. And the same can be said of William Turner, who died at the dispensary on the seventh of February, 1893, an
unqualified practitioner from the technical point of view, but credited by the thousands to whose ailments he ministered as a physician of rare discernment and skill."' Later, John Columba Byrne, physician and surgeon, carried on the beneficent work. Then followed the club and institute.
The mill itself stood a little to our right as we walk from the Turkish Baths to the Dispensary, one corner in Birch road and another on the far side of Stevenson road. The 1795 Fairbank map shows a corn mill on this site, but a 1792 record states that William and John Hartop were proposing to take a part of Washford Meadow on a 99 years' lease. It is quite possible that this record gives us a clue to the early days of the mill. When it became a steam mill is not clear, but it carried this description in 1805. William Hartop was the miller, and in 1819 he was living in Heppenstall lane. Built into the wall of the new premises at the eastern side of Zion Chapel is an old tombstone, removed from the nowcovered part of the old graveyard, bearing the inscription " In memory of Mary Ann Hartop, the only child of William and Sarah Hartop, of Attercliffe, who died July 10th, 1817, aged 19 years." Mrs. Hartop, described in the Zion records as 'I the miller's wife," was also buried in this yet-revered God's acre.
In a 1787 Attercliffe rate-book I find William Hartop and Company credited with two coal pits, an ironstone pit and a brickyard, but, unfortunately, the whereabouts of these centres of activity are omitted. Further, in the Minutes of the Overseers of the Poor under date July 30th, 1819, the names Wm. Hartop, Esq., and Mr. Jonathan Oakes, occur in the somewhat lengthy list of overseers present. Miller Hartop will long be remembered for his great generosity in the days of high prices of flour at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th. It is recorded that in 1801 the bellman announced that the people could be supplied with 1 Hartley for 1888 and 1894. flour at Michael Raybould's, in Snig hill, for 1016 a stone.' In August, 1795, it was 516, but Mr. Hartop, sensing the hardship laid on the working classes by demanding such a price, promptly sent his wagons into the town laden with flour at 2/7 a stone. In their gratitude' the people harnessed themselves to a coach and dragged it to Attercliffe for the purpose of bringing the benevolent miller to Sheffield and drawing him in triumph through the streets of the town. He declined the honour, but the importunity of the populace induced him to permit his servants to go instead, and the coach proceeded to the town amidst continual acclamations of Joy.
This mill was destroyed by fire in 1805. Here is the account of the fire as it appeared in The Iris for October 31st. ---Thismorning at five o'clock the Steam Mill at Attercliffe was discovered to be on fire. The flames burst through the windows and raged with such fury that nothing could be coved. The roof fell in about six o'clock. All the grain, Machinery and so forth were consumed." .
However, a new mill was shortly erected on the same spot. Fairbank, 1819, shows that the estate, just over three acres in extent was in the hands of William Hydes' executors and in the tenancy of John Shirley. There were two ponds, a house and garden, a small plantation and an acre enclosure adjacent to the highway, and then the 'steam engine, corn mill, stables, etc.,' to the right of the house. In 1822 we get J. mod T. Shirley: 1833, John Shirley, miller and maltster: 1838, Shirley and Parker, corn factors, miller& and maltsters (Benjamin Shirley at the mill house, Henry Parker at Hall Carr). In 1839 John Shirley is a corn miller and merchant me Not 10 Corn Exchange and at our steam mill. This takes tic sotto the Old Town when the Corn Exchange stood a little to the east of the River Sheaf (then-running in the open, not, as now, underground) between the Canal bridge in Exchange street and the Sheaf bridge in Broad street. In front of it was the New Haymarket, the site now occupied by the 'Wholesale Fruit Market. Thomas Shirley, grocer and flour dealer, 26 Church street and No. 1 Haymarket, supplies us with another memory of the old town in his further business description of " Corn Miller, Albion Mill, Shemeld Croft." Our present Commercial street viaduct approximately runs over the old croft, and down there in the Sheaf Market the Albion Corn mill is still standing and known as the Live Stock Market. Getting back, however, to Attercliffe, in 1849 Jackson and Smith were here, Samuel Smith being the resident partner. They were also the millers at the quaint little flour mill at Canklow which is now merged into John ,Brown's colliery premises there. Jackson and Sons were the millers in 1852, and then followed Philip Stevenson in '54, with Stevenson and Dodds a little later. Isaac Dodds was the senior partner in the firm of Dodds and Sons, engineers, millwrights, etc., at the Holmes Engine and Railway Works, Masbro' : whilst miller Stevenson (or Stephenson) resided in the mill-house with its " shrubbery, garden, greenhouse, fruit walls, stable and carriage house," to quote the 1861 rate-book description of the residential part of the mill property. The partners, had their own malt-kiln and wharf on the canalside, along with nine tenements, at the top of Wharf yard or Courts 20 and 22 near the Royal Oak Inn. It was in this yard that Tom Gill resided, the night watchman at Hornby and Elliott's chemical works (see p. 91), who, on the night of the Sheffield Flood in 1864, was suddenly alarmed by the rushing waters, gave a wild shriek, and perished in the flood.
Calamity again overtook our mill: here is the Sheffield Daily Telegraph account of the second fire on July 24th, 1863.
Great fire this morning. Destruction of the Attercliffe Steam Corn-mill. These extensive corn and flour mills, the property of Messrs. Stevenson and Dodds, were destroyed byfire this morning in about one-and-a-half hours. The main building was 25 to 30 yards long, and five storeys high, containing 300 sacks of flour and 1200 of corn, a very small part of which was saved. The fire engine arrived half-anhour after the outbreak was discovered, but the fire had then gained possession of the premises, and soon the building was a mass of flames. The stables, haylofts and other outbuildings were preserved. Several of the onlookers stated that they remembered the previous conflagration in 1805. The damage is estimated at £5000." Mr. David M.. Chapman says that the stones taken from the ruins were used in building the shops at the corner of Church. lane and Attercliffe road, where Lomas Clapson's clock-face on the front wall for so many years reminded us of his tenancy of No. 717 in the eighteen- seventies.
Let us roam in imagination. over the steam-mill estate of eighty or ninety years ago, guiding ourselves by present-day landmarks. Walk a short distance along Stevenson road: we are really on the big lawn in front of Mr. Stevenson's residence, having made an entrance through the border of trees behind the CarIton road boundary wall 1 There's a fine shrubbery on our right, screening the mill department from the house. On our left, where is now Bessemer square, commenced a ten-foot carriage. drive from the road to the front door, and beyond that row of trees along its edge are a smaller lawn, a little copse, and a reservoir connected by a narrow channel with the larger one behind the house, the remotest corner of which miniature lake is fairly indicated by the junction of Birch and Livingstone roads. From this second dam a straight water course, about 900 feet long, ran, to the Don which it joined behind the Crown Works in Bessemer road. There seems to have been an underground water-supply for these dams from the Woodbourn estate and beyond. Mr. Paul, discussing the point some years ago, said that he remembered such a channel being 1 cleaned out' at the Stoke street corner. The house side of the property we notice is well wooded, but the mill section is devoid of such sylvan amenities. Armstead road represents the wagonway to the mill buildings: on our right are the employees' dwellings, and behind them a row of sheds and warehouses ending at the reservoir edge. A study of the 1819 plan on page 72 will materially help us in our 1 fairyland' ramble in 1850. The long, straight water course mentioned above is indicated by the division line between James Simpson's holding, number 51, on the right, and Joseph Read's, numbered 48 and 50, on the left.
Further along the road we note the offices of Messrs. Pashley and Trickett, a firm just now engaged in dismantling the pumping engine, built in 1864, at the Nunnery pit.' A few years ago they also dismantled the old Woodthorpe colliery buildings and machinery. We pass the sidings and goods station of the ' Sheffield and District Railway,' and cross the river into the Castle Meadows of far-off yesterdays extending beyond the waterway that supplied the Nether Shrewsbury Forge and still drives a turbine for its descendant, the Attercliffe Forge of Messrs. Sanderson Brothers and Newbould. At the end of our outward journey the name Cox and Danks, iron and steel scrap merchants, ship salvors and breakers, urges the perusal of a deeply- interesting account of the firm's many and varied activities that appeared in the Sheffield Daily Telegraph for December 30th, 1932. More recently (1613133) Mr. Cox's ten years' trying experiences at Scapa Flow whilst salving the German battleships were narrated, compelling unalloyed admiration for the wonderful intrepidity of our Stevenson-road firm.
Returning on the eastern side of the road we pass one of Sanderson's entrances, and over the river the long frontage of " Industrial Steels " brings us to Oakes Green road, their 1 S.D.T,, 1413183. premises covering the site of the old Slitting Mill-of which more later.
The Attercliffe Council school was opened, with Walkley, Crookesmoor, Lowfields and Carbrook, on August 17th, 1874. Our first School Board was elected in 1870, and re-elected in 1873. John Fairburn, of the Chemical Works (p. 92), was one of its members: so was Henry Joseph Wilson, of the Smelting Works, and John P. Moss was their clerk. One recalls with pride the names of some of the teachers in this school: Mark Wright, B.Sc., George Gleadhall Swann, afterwards Vicar of Darnall and subsequently of Pitsmoor, George Davis, son of B. D. Davis, the Board's Inspector fifty years ago, George H. Douglas' and Joseph Meadley, both of musicalcircles fame. Nor can one refrain from adding Thomas Bingley Boss, a pupil teacher here, and a member of Leigh street Baptist Church, who gave me my first insight into the world of mathematics.
Baldwin street Congregational Chapel stands next to the school, built in 1907 in succession to the original building opened in 1875, fragrant with memories of its early days and of lives devoted to the work of the Kingdom throughout the years. Just round the Baldwin corner is St. Charles' Roman Catholic Church, the Very Rev. Canon Michael F. Beazley. the beloved father in the work. Built into the wall of the school premises in close proximity is a large stone bearing the inscription- Built in 1871 : rebuilt in 1929 : In memory of the Very Rev. Joseph Hurst, V.F., founder and first rector 18661905.
Mr. James R. Wigfull, in his paper on " House Building in Queen Elizabeth's Days,"' has pointed out that Bailiff Dickenson's house, built in 1575, stood in Sheffield on land now covered by the High street end of George street. Dickenson was a man of considerable authority in his day.
William Dickenson, presumably the bailiff, is mentioned fre. quently in the 1637 survey of the Shrewsbury estates, both as freeholder and tenant. To us in these recent years especially interesting is the record that he rented for about £8 per year a hundred- and -three acres of " a spring wood of 25 years' growth " called Woolley wood. in Ecclesfield parish, possibly the land now, by the munificence of Alderman J. G. Graves, pertaining to the people of Sheffield.
To revert to the Shrewsbury forges: about the year 1603 they were leased to Colonel Copley instead of being worked directly for the Earl's benefit. The 1795 map indicates a forge where the old Slitting Mill seems to have carried on its work into the first half of the 19th century, at the north end of (the former) Slitting Mill lane (1 Industrial Steels' has now cut off most of the lane). In the absence of any detailed information is it not rational to suppose that the mill was indeed the I old age' of the Upper Shrewsbury Forge, the same buildings but con. verted to a different use ? There was a water course leading from the near end of the weir head close to the present East Coast road, providing motive power for the forge, and then rejoining the Don, on its western bank, at Sandersons' works. The Nether Forge already mentioned would be the forerunner of Messrs. Sanderson Brothers and Newbould's place, which somehow has persistently been called Attercliffe Forge, or simply The Forge, although it is situated in Brightside Bierlow.
It may be noted here that the winding course of the Don in this area was simplified about the time of the railway's initial stages by cutting a channel across Sanderson's field, which has reduced the distance from Stevenson road to Attercliffe forge by nearly one half.
The railway's operations were undertaken by the Lancashire, Derbyshire and East Coast railway, and this in its turn was taken over by the Great Central about 1906. At the present time it is linked up in the L.M.S. and L.N.E. railways' combine. The traffic lines, having passed over the river and its neighbouring water way, join the main L.M.S. lines, along with those from the Wicker station and the 1 big works,' at the Upwell street viaducts.
Many of my readers will remember the old cottages shown in the illustration facing page 105 (above). They stood until recently beyond the wall ending Colwall street. The story of the two on the left is of the deepest interest. Our earliest information about them occurs in the will of Laurence Smythe, of Attercliffe, dated April 12th, 1548, the summary of which will be found in the first of Mr. T. Walter Hall's fascinating volumes. Towards the end of a list of bequests the testator directed that the sum of 13s. 4d. be paid by hisson, Hugh, for twenty years 11 to the mayntenance of the Service of God in the chapell of Atterclif." The name at the head of this section was given by Mr. Hall to the place of worship mentioned in the will. The difficulty was the deter. mination of its position in Attercliffe. The late Mr. A. B. Shaw discovered in a manuscript rent roll of 1580 an illuminating entry: 'I Lawrence Wilkinson, for a house called the Chappell, 5/-" In the 1583 rental he found ,Lawrence Wilkinson for a house which was the Chappell at Attercliffe." Between 1583 and 1589 this house was converted into two dwelling houses, for in 1589 occurred the entry, "John Stacye for half of the house which was the Chappell at Attereliffe, 316. John Sheameld for ye other half of ye same house, 3/6." Mr. Shaw traced the tenancies forward to 1624, 11 but the entries are brief, and make no mention of precise situation." In Harrison's survey only one house is recorded as standing by Beighton Green, and it is significant that the house was in two parts, for the survey states ,John Read holdeth at will a part of a cottage by Beighton Green and payeth yearly 12 pence. Robert Bristow holdeth at will the other part of the said cottage and payeth yearly 12 pence."
The late Mr. Paul zealously pursued the quest for the site of this ancient chapel, and in a lecture delivered in the Attercliffe Vestry Hall, on March 22nd, 1926, he said "It happens that there are some ancient buildings in Oakes Green, now used as cottages, probably much more ancient than any other property in the district, two of which show traces of having been, at one time, one house. Some months ago Messrs. Jonas and Colver purchased the houses and the surrounding land, and 1 had the opportunity of perusing certain old deeds in connection with the title. First 1 found that formerly there had been a rent charge on the property payable to the Twelve Capital Burgesses of the town of Sheffield which was commuted by a recent owner of the property. Then 1 found that a family of Penton apparently once owned this old house amongst much other Attercliffe property, and that by a deed dated May 10th, 1716, the properties were divided amongst the daughters of William Fenton, one of whom married William Burton, of Royds Mill (p. 61). There is an ancient door, now built up, apparently showing that this was once the main entrance to the building, and it is most significant that this property once belonged to Laurence Smythe (previously mentioned) who married Ann Fenton, and who by his will left his property to his wife's relations, the Fentons.
,,If this was the chapel, one may ask how the Earl of Shrewsbury came to convert the building into two. My explanation would be that the change in local religious feeling, from the old Roman Catholic faith to the Protestant, caused the people to avoid the building, and the Earl of Shrewsbury, a devoted Catholic, took possession of it to prevent the spread of what was then called the New Religion. The chapel was erected on the Green, and being on common land he, the lord of the manor, might consider that he was well within his legal rights in thus appropriating the property."
The occupants of the two cottages on the left kindly gave Mr. Paul the opportunity of examining the interior, and the result of his observations still further strengthened the belief that these two had been originally one house, and further the arrangement of the oaken beams at the eastern end of the second cottage suggested that the original purport of the building was an ecclesiastical one.
Unfortunately, from the antiquarian's point of view, these and the adjacent buildings were demolished in August, 1931, having been condemned by the City Council as unfit for occupation.
In a later part of our story we shall deal with England's severance from papal authority and the dawn of the reform. ation early in the sixteenth century. Was the old chapel under discussion built about this time? War, Laurence Smythe the builder? Was he an adherent of the reformed religion, a protestant as we should have called him later? Was the chapel really an early protestant place of worship ? We seem to have no authority for positive answers to these questions, but 1 venture to say that probably the answers are all in the affirmative.
Many of our early English villages enjoyed the communal rights of a village green, an unenclosed space, grass grown, conveniently situated, imperfectly defined as to boundaries, used by the villagers for their May-day dancing, their sports, their children's games-in fact a public recreation ground devoid of restrictions. Attercliffe had two such spaces, Beighton or Oakes green, and Goose or Attercliffe green. How the name Beighton came to describe the open space we are now considering is not known. Rauf Beighton and his son, John, were named in Laurence Smythe's 1551 will already cited: and there was a Richard Beighten, shearsmith, a leaseholder in 1650 living where the Park steel works now stand, just over the canal bridge in Beighton (now Bacon) lane. It may be that the family of Beighton in earlier years had some influential connection with the green which perhaps unwittingly on the family's part caused the transference of the name to the common property. But this is purely conjectural, as indeed is any similar explanation of the later designation, Oakes green. The Oakes family, as we have already noted was widespread in Attercliffe, and here may lie the origin of its present and time-honoured description. The suggestion that the name is reminiscent of oak trees seems to have no real support.
Turn to our map and note the position of the green in 1810 as roughly indicated by the dotted lines, with Oakes green road running across it. The colour-washed cottages in St. Charles street stand on a part of its western edge. Close to the figure 10 stood eight cottages owned by John Blagden (see p. 51) and G. B. Greaves. The present Heppenstall lane property including Mr. Markham's and Carlton Hall were near the green but not on it. Three detached portions are shown on the opposite side of Attercliffe road, suggesting that the traffic of those days ran over the southern corner of the people's property.
A Fairbank 1777 plan of "Two closes belonging to WM. Burton at Attercliffe with a scheme for letting them in building plots " supplies some interesting details about the Heppenstall. lane neighbourhood. Three parcels of land were hereabouts demised (or left to him by somebody's will) to Price Heppenstall. One portion 11 not yet built on " occupiedthe south-western side of the lane: another portion 11 on which sundry tenements and shops are built " indicates the present Heppenstall lane with Mr. Markham's premises fronting to the main road: and the third part comprised 1651 square yards near CarIton Hall.
The Inclosure of our greens and commons in 1811 is detailed in (the late) Mr. Paul's admirable book "Some Forgotten Facts in the History of Sheffield and District " (1907) which my readers will do well to study. Oakes Green, exclusive of the road, covered five-and-a-half acres. The numbers on our map show the positions of plots of the green. land allocated to various people at that time. Nos. 1, 2, and 8 to 12 indicate about three acres granted to the lord of the manor: No. 3, 726 square yards at the corner of Staniforth road to Mrs. Ellen Greaves: Nos. 5 and 6, about an acre, to Mr. Greaves, the lawn and front gardens of CarIton Hall. No.7, about 665 square yards, was to be reserved as a public watering place for horses and cattle, and this refreshing corner was still in use at the time of the 1853 survey. Nos. 13 and 14 represent about an acre granted to Edward Hanson, the former plot near the ancient chapel property, and the latter near the corner of Slitting Mill lane. Nos. 15 and 16, representing 1452 square yards on the north-eastern side of the Green road, were allocated to the Rev. Thomas Radford.
Mr. Radford was for five years (1810-15) chairman of the Weekly Board at the Sheffield General Infirmary. In Attercliffe, in addition to the plots 15 and 16 aforementioned, he owned some land through which Colwall street now runs, and it is significant that Dr. Edwin Richardson's house, which formerly stood on the site of Nos. 609 and 611 Attercliffe road (Boots Ltd, is 599 at the corner of Colwall street), was known in 1864 as Radford house. The 1787 directory records him as residing in Arundel street, "curate of the New Church."
We cannot leave Mr. Radford's corner of Attercliffe without a reference to the Methodist New Connexion Chapel that was built about 1836 near the end of Chapel (now Colwall) street on the western side. The building had a frontage of about 45 feet, with a seating accommodation of 188 ',including 24 free seats." About 1873 or '4 its descendant, St. Paul's Methodist Chapel in Shortridge street, replaced the older building. One cannot but wonder if Mr. Radford's curacy at St. Paul's Church in Sheffield was responsible for the name given to the Attercliffe building.
GEORGE BUSTARD GREAVES was the owner of some fifty acres of land in Attercliffe-Cariton house and grounds included-at the time of the W. and J. Fairbank survey in 1819. Diagram IV, p. 72, shows three of his larger plots. His story is replete with 11 Old Sheffield." Who was George Greaves, of Attercliffe, the father of G. B. ? Was he the Master Cutler of 1762 whose place of business was in Norfolk street (now Hay and Son's premises) with his town residence next door-the site of the Sheffield Savings Bank ? Or was he the filesmith of West. Bar Green in 1787 ? Mr. Leader, in his 11 History of the Cutlers' Company,"' says that the "genealogy is too obscure to justify any confidence of assertion." A Fairbank 1777 plan records George Greaves as leaseholder of the building we now call CarIton house, and indicates 11 George Greaves' cottage " a little to the northwest thereof. He married Jane Bustard, daughter of Richard Bustard, Lt.-Col. of the Sheffield Volunteer Infantry in 1803. Their only son, George Bustard Greaves, born in 1758, married Ellen Clay (1755-1834) whose father, Joseph, and mother, Mary, were buried in the Hill Top Chapel with others of the intertwining families of Clay and Speight. Greaves' name recalls the story of Page Hall, built in 1773 by Thos. Broadbent, and considered to be ',the handsomest residence which had so far been erected out of Sheffield-made capital." The Broadbent Bank failed in 1780, and Page Hall was subsequently purchased by George Greaves, whose son sold it in 1834 to James Dixon, the founder of the deservedly well-known Cornish Place firm. Later the hall became the N.U.T. Benevolent Orphanage, but is now in the market for sale, building having already commenced on the grounds.
Joseph Clay's sister, Margaret, was the second wife of James Allott, of Attercliffe, and their son, James, married Esther Burton, daughter of William Burton, of Royds Mill (p. 6 1). This second James Allott was a partner in the Sheffield Lead Works, founded in 1758, then situated in Shude hill, Later he became the principal partner in the firm, and dying in 1783 without children, ---thebulk of his property still further enriched the Greaves family of Page Hall."'
George Greave's house, built before 1777 as indicated by a Fairbank plan of that date, seems to have acquired its present name of CarIton House sometime before the middle of the last century. The 1819 Fairbank plan shows it facing a large " pleasure ground, garden and pond " -formerly part of the Green- an acre-and-a-half in extent. A winding carriage-drive commenced where Kimberley street, now begins. The frontage of the property extended from Mr. Markham's boundary to Oakes Green corner, and nearly the same distance along the Green road. The name of the 1819 tenant, Thomas Howard, takes us back in imagination to Sheffield High street of bygone days. At John Walsh's corner of Mulberry street there stood the Old Stone House, erected in 1727, which was at one time in the possession of the Greaves family, later coming to the Howards, wine merchants. Widow Howard dying in 1822, her son, Thomas, above mentioned, succeeded to the business, already having enjoyed the rural felicities of the village of Attercliffe.
In the late 'thirties or early 'forties Samuel Jackson, of the firm of Spear and Jackson, merchants, and manufacturers of saws, files, edge tools, etc. (late of Gibraltar street, then of Savile street, subsequently of the AEtna works, Savile street east), was in residence here, later becoming the owner of the property, The firm had become wonderfully distinguished for the excellence of its products. Mr. Jackson was elected a Chevalier of the French Legion of Honour (founded by Napoleon the First in 1802 for the recognition of outstanding merit wherever displayed), and the firm gained the Council Medal of the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, the Medal of Honour from the Paris Exhibition in 1855, and the Vienna Medal for Progress in 1873. Samuel died in 1867, but widow Jackson and her daughters, Cora and Helen, con tinued in residence here, the 1876 directory showing Miss Cora Jackson as still entertaining the Jackson liking for Attercliffe in spite of the fact that building operations had already deprived the house of its early-Victorian rural surroundings.
Later, CarIton house became the residence of Mr. Thos. Aherne Sheahan, physician and surgeon, continuing well into the second decade of the present century, leaving a name surrounded with memories of gracious service to the ailing folk of the district.
In the late 'eighties Kimberley street took the place of the old carriage drive, a little street that cannot be left without a reference to one of oar finest printers who once lived in it. George W. Jones came to Attercliffe as a journeyman printer with Messrs. Hartley and Son, residing in Vicarage road and subsequently in Kimberley street about 1890. Eventually he removed to London where his artistic soul continued to lead him along lines of research culminating in the front-rank position he now occupies in the printing world. The Caxton Magazine for June, 1930, contains a full account of " Our Printer Laureate," from which we quote a few sentences. 11 He has made the great masters of typedesigning his debtors. He has searched the world for models on which to base the letters he has reformed and issued. The envy and despair of young craftsmen, he has ever been their encourager." With pride and affection we add the name of George W. Jones to our ever-enlarging list of Attercliffe worthies.
The photograph facing page 105 was taken by Mr. Cyril Ward in 1926. Mr. Paul considered that the lefthand portion of the little block of cottages formed the 1547 chapel described in the text.
The fascinating view of historic cottages facing page 113 was taken by the late Mr. J. C. Nicholson, of 339 High street, forty or more years ago, from an upper window in Oakes green, opposite the near end of Slitting Mill lane. Most of the houses shown formed Hanson square. The old chapel was the quaint-looking cottage near the right centre, though it has been suggested that 1 the Chapel ' really stood to the rear of this place. Opinion is somewhat divided on the question. The near right-hand building is the westward front of Horbury house, which was subsequently converted into two. Forty-three or -four years ago Byron Lister, a roll-turner at the Baltic works, lived in this part, and Mr. Samuel Webster (my welcome informant on many Attercliffe points) in the other. Previously, Taylor and Heppenstall, of mineral waters fame, were here. Attercliffe Church tower, with the spire of Zion Chapel on the extreme right, are readily found. On the left is a fine glimpse of the old loop of the Don with its tree-bordered banks reflected in the water.
Diagram V, page 114, embracing about 160 acres, will greatly assist one to localise roads, works, waterways, buildings and some former features, mentioned in this part of our story.
Any references to, or quotations from, this material should give credit to the original author(s) or editors.